Filler Masterbatch are offered with average particle sizes in the range between 1 and 100 µm.
The specific surface is a function of the particle size distribution (PSD) and the particle shape. The characteristic shape size is the aspect ratio, here defined as the average ratio of particle diameter to particle thickness.
Filler masterbatch is refers to the plastic processing in the process of forming, in order to facilitate the operation, mix the necessary additives, Filler Masterbatch and a small amount of carrier resin, the end products powdr or granules you get called masterbatch. The main components of the filler masterbatch are Filler Masterbatch.It is mostly used for the formaing with polyolefins (polyethylene and polypropylene), it is also called polyolefin filler masterbatch
A major part of Filler Masterbatch is based on natural minerals, and nearly all of them are crystalline.
The kind of crystal lattice and the chemical composition determine the macroscopic properties. By-minerals and impurities affect the filler Masterbatch quality. Mineral Filler Masterbatch can basically be divided into carbonates, sulfates, and silicates.
Among the carbonates, calcium carbonate, with a worldwide market share of approximately 70%, plays the dominant role. Depending on the raw material source, natural calcium carbonate (NCC) is marketed in the form of chalk, limestone, or marble. Some grades are also obtainable with surface-treated (usually with stearic acid) modification. Calcium carbonate occurs in different crystalline forms. The most widespread form is calcite with either a trigonal-rhombohedral or trigonal-scalenohedral crystal lattice. Another crystal modification is the orthorhombic aragonite, which has higher density (2.9 g/cm3) and refractive index (1.7) than calcite. Chalk is a soft textured sedimentary limestone which formed from marine microfossils.
Table 1 Properties of calcium carbonate
Limestone, Chalk, Marble
Water Solubility g/100 ml
Loss on Ignition %
Surface Energy J/m2
Thermal Conductivity W/m · K
Thermal Exp. Coefficient 1/K
Specific Heat J/kg · K
Volume Resistivity Ω · cm
Surface Resistivity Ω · cm
5 · 109
Dielectric Constant 104 Ηz
1.48 – 1.65
As a largely inactive, low-cost filler, calcium carbonate yields a reduction in the cost of the finished formulation without dramatic changes in properties. On account of its generally high chemical purity, good dispersion characteristics, and ability to be used at high filler loadings, calcium carbonate offers a number of advantages to thermoplastics, such as slightly increased elastic modulus and impact strength, shrinkage reduction, good
coloration, and excellent surface finish.
In volume terms, more than one-third (36%) of the calcium carbonate consumed for plastics is used as a filler for PVC compounds (mainly plasticized), with the remainder used in UP resins (34%), PP (9%), and other plastics e.g., PU, PSF, PE, rubber, silicone, and polyacrylate
Today, PCC is mainly produced from calcined limestone (CaO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) Through adjustment of the process conditions, various crystal modifications can be produced, the aragonitic being the most important one. Purity and whiteness of PCC is very high and the particle size is in the range of 0.1 to 2μ
Dolomite is a very common mineral, but is usually quite contaminated with iron or manganese and therefore, its color varies from white to brown
Magnesium carbonate is the Mg-counterpart of calcium carbonate and has similar properties. However, most magnesium carbonate that could otherwise be used as Filler Masterbatch goes into ceramic and refractory industries. Its uses follow the same pattern as calcite and dolomite.
Barium sulfate is available both as natural mineral (baryte) as well as a synthetic product (blanc fixe). Among the Filler Masterbatch with commercial applications, barium sulfate has the highest specific gravity, is inert, very bright, and easy to disperse. The filler grades of barite are offered with an average particle size between 2 and 15 μm..
Hollow and solid glass and ceramic beads are widely used in resin systems. types which can be used as conductive Filler Masterbatch, e.g., in shielding applications. Because of the narrow particle size distribution, which enables high packing fractions, and the low specific surface of spherical Filler Masterbatch, high filler loadings without unacceptable increases in viscosity are possible (ball bearing effect)
Synthetic silicas mainly consist of amorphous silicon dioxide. The primary particles with a diameter between 10 and 100 nanometers form aggregates (secondary particles) with 1 to 10 μm average size.
In contrast to synthetic silicas, natural grades, with the exception of diatomaceous earth, are microcristalline and can cause adverse health effects (silicosis). The products are made from natural resources, e.g., quartz sand, novaculite, and diatomaceous earth
Feldspar is produced from white granite, while nepheline-syenite is made from syenite rock. Both minerals exhibit extraordinary inertness, high transparency (also for microwaves), and low specific surface. Among the extenders, feldspar and nephelinesyenite are the most inactive and neutral ones
Aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide decompose endothermally at 200 and 300 °C, respectively. During decomposition, they release crystal water; therefore, they are used as flame retardant Filler Masterbatch at up to 70% loadings.
The major share (90%) of the world production of carbon black is used as reinforcing Filler Masterbatch in rubber; only 4% is used in plastics. The functionality depends on the carbon black type.
Typical applications include pigmentation, UV-stabilization, and conductivity in PVC, PE, and ABS.
The term kaolin covers a whole group of hydratized aluminium silicates that come in varying degrees of purityThe average particle size of types supplied ranges between 1 and 10 μm, while the specific surface area is in the 10 to 40 m2/g range.
The main application for kaolin as a filler is in the rubber industry, where a distinction is made between hard and soft kaolin according to the reinforcing effect. Kaolin is frequently used in calcined form. In many cases, a specially tailored surface treatment is also provided. In glass fiber-reinforced thermosets, improved surface quality, reduced warpage, and lower curing crack formation is obtained with the use of kaolin.
Filler grade graphites can be either of natural or synthetic origin, the latter being considerably higher in purity. Graphite is used in plastics especially because of its electrical and thermal conductivity and its lubricating properties. Because of its platy structure, graphite imparts rigidity and dimensional stability to polymers.
Various metals (Ag, Cu, Al, Fe, brass, steel fibers), metal coated particles (mica, glass
flakes and glass beads, Ni-coated carbon fibers), and minerals (graphite) are available to improve the electrical and/or thermal conductivity in various applications. The conductivity of the filled system depends on the filler type, filler loading, and dispersion quality.
This group is mainly represented by graphite, molybdenium disulfide (MoS2) and PTFE powder. These Filler Masterbatch and combinations of them impart good friction and wear properties to polymeric systems, especially polyamides and POM, and are thus used in bearings, brake linings, guideways, etc.
4.3 Organic Filler Masterbatch
Historically, organic Filler Masterbatch were the first additives for polymers.
Historically, organic Filler Masterbatch were the first additives for polymers.
The term nanoFiller Masterbatch embraces primary particle compounds with an upper particle size that is clearly less than 1 μm. Such Filler Masterbatch have been around for a long time, e.g., carbon black, synthetic silicas, precipitated calcium carbonate. However, the primary particles form bigger, quite stable secondary particles through agglomeration, so that they can ultimately no longer be called nanoFiller Masterbatch